Fate of pesticides in the environment how to make pesticide work for you.
Understanding the fate of pesticides in the environment how they transport, transfer and transform and using those characteristics to your advantage to get better results.
Often the major concern of pesticides in the environment is persistence how long does it last in the environment and mobility, how does it move in the soil, water and air.
But we need to consider many factors that lead to those environmental concerns as well as effectiveness and the profitability of changing some of the things we do.
Understanding the Transport, Transfer and Transformation processes of how a pesticide moves away, moves into and has a change in its structure or completely degrades.
Pesticides in the soil
Soil Permeability is the rate of which water moves thru the soil.
Soil depth will greatly influence the amount and time of contact between the pesticide and the soil to complete the biological transformation process.
Soil pH will influence the solubility of pesticides the rate of the biological process.
Soil organic matter will influence the sorption potential of the soil to transform the pesticide through micro organisms.
Soil slope will influence the amount of water that will be infiltrated in the soil as steeper slopes will create a greater transport or runoff.
Leaching of the pesticide through the soil is a huge concern because of the probability of it reaching the water table and contaminating the ground water.
Soils that are rich in organic matter or clay soils are more absorptive than course or sandy soils this is because they have more places to which the pesticide particle can bind to.
Wet soils can absorb less pesticides particles than dry soils because the water molecules will compete with the pesticide molecules for sites to bind to.
Once the pesticide is in the soil it will take one three courses it will move through the soil with the water, attach itself to soil particles, or be metabolized by organisms such as fungi, bacteria or any other micro organism in the soil that can use the pesticide as a carbon or energy food source.
In sandy soils where there is a lack of organic matter persistence or leaching is a great concern.
Pesticide in the Water
Pesticides that enter bodies of water through leeching or runoff will float on the surface, diffuse into the water or deposit into sediments at the bottom of water body.
Hydrolysis happens when the then bonds in the pesticide molecules break down because of the contact with water. Water pH is a strong determining factor.
Pesticides in the air
Pesticides can travel through the air when applied, attached to small particles such as leaves or they can volatize off surfaces.
High Temperatures with low humidity makes it more favorable to volatilization
High air movement, Vapor Pressure, Solubility of the pesticide all contribute to volatilization.
Photodegradation is the breakdown of pesticides by sunlight, it can occur on the foliage, surfaces or air.
The half life of pesticide
Fate of pesticides in the body
Fate of pesticides in the soil
Fate of pesticides in water
How it affects pollinators
How it affects beneficial
How it affects animals and wildlife
How it affects plants
All this and many more questions can be answered at National Pesticide Information Center http://npic.orst.edu/index.html
By informing yourself on how pesticides behave in the soil, air and water you get better results, be more effective and save money.
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