Bee Killing Viruses, Forum Posting, Good To Great, Bee Removal
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Akim Pest Control @akimpestcontrol Niagara Region, ON, Canada
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Good To Great by Jim Colins Why Some Companies Make the Leap…And Others Don’t
Bee Viral Studies
Disease Associated Honey Bee Diseases Transmitted by Varroa Mites is More Severe than Previously Thought.
The study looked at two major organisms that affect honey bees, the Varroa mite and the fungal parasite Nosema, which disrupts the bee’s digestive system.
This study found clear trends accruing annually with both the Varroa infestations peaking late the summer or early fall and the Nosema fungi peaking in late winter.
The study also found very notable differences in the prevalence of Varroa mites and Nosema fungi between migratory and stationary hives. Migratory beekeepers reported lower levels of Varroa mites compared with stationary hives that stay put all year-round and the reverse was true for Nosema fungi with a lower relative incidence of infections reported in stationary hives.
There was detected a strong positive relationships between Vaora destructor and Varroa-transmitted viruses, such as Nosema and Lake Sinai virus 2, and a positive relationship across msny viral pathogens of bees. Theses results provide a disease baseline to help identify the drivers of poor bee health.
There are about 24 viruses that have been identified in honey bees but because several of the viruses are so closely related and are arguably members of a single-species complexes we have reduce the total number of distinct viruses to about 16 to 18.
“Our biggest surprise was the high level of Varroa, especially in fall, and in well-managed colonies cared for by beekeepers who have taken steps to control the mites,”
Crop Pollination Exposes Honey Bees to Pesticides Which Alters Their Susceptibility to the Gut Pathogen Nosema ceranae.
Though more attention must be paid to to determine how honey bees are exposed to pesticides outside of the fields in which they are placed in. They have detected 35 different pesticides in pollen samples and have found high fungicide loads in those samples.
Lake Sinai viruses
There is no one single factor that is responsible that contribute Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), samples from honey bee CCD affected colonies have had a higher pathogen viruses and Nosema.
Sequence analysis has resulted in the extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, and the first detection of the LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. With the detection of the LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa mite, and have been able to determine that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the bee’s gut.
Deformed Wing Virus
Deformed wing virus (DWV) is the one of the main viruses associated with the collapse of honeybee colonies due to infestation with the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor.
Nosema fungal gut parasite
In the U.S. Nosema disease of honey bees is caused by one of two or both of the fungi named Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae.
So how dose the viruses kill the bees: When a bee ingests Nosema spores, the spores are filtered out of the honey sac by the proventricular valve and released into the midgut.
The specific physical and chemical conditions of the honey bee,s midgut stimulates the germination process. Then the organism penetrates a midgut cell and grows by absorbing nutrients from the cell. The parasite now increases in size until it is large enough to divide. Each new parasite will continues in this multiplication process until the nutrients in the cell become exhausted. That process stimulus triggers sporulation an depending upon the species of Nosema, approximately 100 spores can begin to develop as early as 4 days after infection or up to nine days later.
Heavily infected worker honey bees can contain an excess of 50 million spores.
Damaged intestinal tissue is subject to secondary infections known as dysentery, a common sign of infection with Nosema apis is the showing brown diarrhea spots on the combs and exterior of the hive is but this is not seen with Nosema ceranae. Nosema apis infected bees will also defecate inside the hive, contaminating the comb with millions of infectious spores.
Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus
Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus has double annually since 2010. There are Two forms of the disease that are currently well defined. The first form of the disease manifests itself as abnormal trembling of the body and wings. With symptomatic bees not being able to fly and often crawl on the ground, eventually dyeing in front of the colony.
They may also have display bloated abdomens due to distension of the honey sac and huddle together on the top of the bee cluster.
The second form CVPE is manifested by what is know as hairless-black syndrome. The infection in the midgut accurs when the honey bee ingests food contaminated with Nosema ceranae spores.
Spread of Infectious Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus by Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) Feces
Molecular diagnosis of chronic bee paralysis virus infection
Three Invasives that have not made it to us
The parasitic Tropilaelaps mite
Asian honey bee Apis cerana
Sacbrood and Acute Bee-Paralysis Viruses
Two More Small RNA Viruses from Honey Bees and Further Observations on Sacbrood and Acute Bee-Paralysis Viruses
Live bee removal