25b essential oil sugar baits to control mosquitoes known as Attractant Toxic Sugar Baits (ATSB) have been studied extensively throughout the world with surprisingly good results.
The efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) with the active ingredient eugenol, an Environmental Protection Agency exempt compound, was evaluated against vector and nuisance mosquitoes in both laboratory and field studies. In the laboratory, eugenol combined in attractive sugar bait (ASB) solution provided high levels of mortality for Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Field studies demonstrated significant control: >70% reduction for Aedes atlanticus, Aedes. infirmatus, and Culex nigripalpus and >50% reduction for Anopheles crucians, Uranotaenia sapphirina, Culiseta melanura, and Culex erraticus three weeks post ATSB application. Furthermore, non-target feeding of six insect orders, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Orthoptera, was evaluated in the field after application of a dyed-ASB to flowering and non-flowering vegetation. ASB feeding (staining) was determined by dissecting the guts and searching for food dye with a dissecting microscope. The potential impact of ATSB on non-targets, applied on green non-flowering vegetation was low for all non-target groups (0.9%). However, application of the ASB to flowering vegetation resulted in significant staining of the non-target insect orders.
Different methods of using attractive sugar baits (ATSB) for the control of Phlebotomus papatasi
We have previously shown that fermented ripe fruit is a strong attractant for several mosquito species, and when mixed with oral insecticide these attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) were highly effective for local mosquito control. In the present study, we compared the effects of ATSB presented in different ways on isolated populations of Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli. Experiments were carried out in the arid habitat of the Jordan valley, Israel where the effectiveness of three methods was compared: ATSB sprayed on patches of vegetation, net fence coated with ATSB, and bait stations soaked with ATSB. Spraying ATSB reduced the population to about 5% of the control area population. Barrier ATSB coated fences, had a similar effect decreasing the population to about 12% of the concurrent catch in the control site. The effect of ATSB presented on bait stations was much smaller and compared to the control, only caused the population to be reduced to 40%. In the control areas where only food dye marker was used, the solution presented on bait stations only marked an average of 22.3% of female sand flies while spraying vegetation and using barrier fences in the two other experiments marked about 60% of the females. Our experiments show that ATSB either sprayed on the vegetation or on barrier fences is an effective means against sand flies at least in arid areas where attractive plants are scarce or absent.
Bait solution was prepared as described by Müller et al. (2008). For the control sites, it consisted of 95% juice of over-ripe nectarines, 5% wine, 10% w/v brown sugar 0.5% w/v red food dye for marking the fed sand flies (Schlein 1987) and 10% of a mixture of slow-release substances and preservatives
The solution was ripened for 48 hrs, in covered buckets, outdoors in the sun where daily temperatures reached an average of 30° C. Boric acid 1.0% w/v and 0.04% w/v spinosad were added as oral toxins to the solution used in the experimental sites.
Efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) against Aedes albopictus with garlic oil encapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as the active ingredient
We tested the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) with garlic oil microencapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as active ingredient against Aedes albopictus in suburban Haifa, Israel. Two three-acre gardens with high numbers of Ae. albopictus were selected for perimeter spray treatment with ATSB and ASB (bait containing no active ingredient). Baits were colored with food dye to verify feeding of the mosquitoes. The mosquito population was monitored by human landing catches and sweep net catches in the surrounding vegetation. Experiments lasted for 44 days. Treatment occurred on day 13. The mosquito population collapsed about 4 days after treatment and continued to drop steadily for 27 days until the end of the study. At the experimental site the average pre-treatment landing rate was 17.2 per 5 mins. Two days post-treatment, the landing rate dropped to 11.4, and continued to drop to an average of 2.6 during the following 26 days. During the same period, the control population was stable. Few sugar fed females (8–10%) approached a human bait and anthrone tests showed relatively small amounts of sugar within their crop/gut. Around 60–70 % of males caught near our human bait were sugar positive which may indicate that the males were feeding on sugar for mating related behavior. From the vegetation treated with the toxic bait, we recovered significantly fewer (about 10–14%) males and females stained by ATSB than at the ASB-treated control. This may indicate that the toxic baits alter the resting behavior of the poisoned mosquitoes within the vegetation. Almost no Ae. albopictus females (5.2 ± 1.4) approached human bait after treatment with ATSB. It therefore appears that microencapsulated garlic oil is an effective pesticide against Ae. albopictus when used in an ATSB system.
Implications for operational control of adult mosquito production in cisterns and wells in St. Augustine, FL using attractive sugar baits
Control of Aedes albopictus with attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) and potential impact on non-target organisms in St. Augustine, Florida
Indoor use of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) to effectively control malaria vectors in Mali, West Africa
The studies were conducted in five villages located near the River Niger, Mali. Baseline village-wide assessments of densities for female and male Anopheles gambiae sensu lato were performed by pyrethrum spray collections (PSC) in ten houses in each of five villages. To determine the rate of mosquito feeding on bait stations, one bait station per house containing attractive sugar bait (ASB) (without toxin) plus a food dye marker, was set up in ten houses in each of the five villages. PSC collections were conducted on the following day and the percentage of female and male mosquitoes that had fed was determined by visual inspection for the dye marker. Then, a 50-day field trial was done. In an experimental village, one bait station containing ATSB (1% boric acid active ingredient) was placed per bedroom (58 bedrooms), and indoor densities of female and male An. gambiae s.l. were subsequently determined by PSC, and female mosquitoes were age graded.
Indoor Application of Attractive Toxic Sugar Bait (ATSB) in Combination with Mosquito Nets for Control of Pyrethroid-Resistant Mosquitoes
Evaluation of boric acid sugar baits against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in tropical environments.
Attractive Toxic Sugar Baits Mixed with Pyriproxyfen Sprayed on Plants Against Adult and Larval Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)
The effect of spraying a mixture of the insect growth regulator (IGR) pyriproxyfen (1 mg/liter) and either 1% boric acid sugar bait or eugenol sugar bait on croton petra plants (Codiaeum variegatum L.) was evaluated against the container-inhabiting mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse). Treatments were applied to plants and evaluated against adult and larval Ae. albopictus in the laboratory through contact and wash off experiments, respectively. The control treatment lacked an active ingredient and were treated with an attractive sugar bait. The plants treated with attractive toxic sugar baits plus the IGR resulted in 60–100% mortality of laboratory-reared adult Ae. albopictus. The pyriproxyfen solutions collected from the plant wash experiment resulted in 80–100% emergence inhibition to the exposed third- and fourth-instar larvae, compared with the untreated control. Attractive toxic sugar baits mixed with the IGR not only provide effective control of adult mosquitoes, but also provide additional control of larval mosquitoes after being washed off from the treated plants.