A Synergist work by increasing the lethality and effectiveness of natural and synthetic pesticides.
Synergists have been used commercially for about 50 years
By themselves, synergists are considered nontoxic. However, that is debatable.
The mode of action of the majority of synergists is to block the metabolic systems that would otherwise break down insecticide molecules.
They interfere with the detoxication of insecticides through their action on polysubstrate monooxygenases (PSMOs) and other enzyme systems.
The role of synergists in resistance management is an enzyme-inhibiting action.
Synergists are tools for overcoming metabolic resistance, and can also delay the manifestation of resistance.
Synergist prevent the breakdown of insecticides by the insect’s mixed function oxidase (MFO) system so that the toxic action of the insecticide will be more effective. Terminal enzyme is cytochrome P-450
Type of Synetrgists
PBO (piperonyl butoxide) discovered in 1947 using naturally-occurring safrole as a key raw material.
MGK 264 (n-octyl bicycloheptene dicarboximide) prevent the breakdown of insecticides by the insect’s mixed function oxidase (MFO) system so that the toxic action of the insecticide will be more effective. Terminal enzyme is cytochrome P-450
Roles of mixed-function oxidases in insect herbivory
Studies seem to sudgest once there is a resistance to the active ingredient the synergistic activity is marginal.
Mode of Action of Insecticide Synergists
Evaluation of Piperonyl Butoxide as a Deltamethrin Synergist for Pyrethroid-Resistant Bed Bugs
In Scabies the result is substantion
The Effect of Insecticide Synergists on the Response of Scabies Mites to Pyrethroid Acaricides
Kicker & ExciteR Pyrethrin 6% PBO 60%
Areosol CB 80 0.50% Pyrethrins – 4% Piperonyl Butoxide
The use of piperonyl butoxide and MGK-264 to improve the efficacy of some plant-derived molluscicides
Synergism of azadirachtin piperonyl butoxide and MGK-264 enhanced the toxicity.
Health and safety.
Mode of action of piperonyl butoxide as herbicide synergist of atrazine and terbutryn in maize
PBO releases histamine in humans
Pyrethroids and piperonyl-butoxide affect human T-lymphocytes in vitro
These findings demonstrate the immuno- and allergo-toxicological properties of the synthetic pyrethroid combined with the synergistic PBO.
Acute Toxicity and Irritation Tests on Animals with the new Insecticide, Piperonyl Butoxide.
practical use of piperonyl butoxide induces no appreciable risk of poisoning or irritation and that it is one.
The U.S. EPA classifies piperonyl butoxide as a group C carcinogen as a possible human carcinogen.